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Gender/Power Analysis

This section focuses on gender and power analysis to understand the contexts that shape people's experiences and realities in terms of power relations and gender.

This can be very broad, so selection of approaches and tools must be rooted firmly in the research framework and key questions for the specific study. (For guidance on design and planning - see pages in the "Preparation" section)

This page provides 3 sections on tool selection for situational analysis:

  1. Links to resources for targeted guidance on situational analysis;
  2. Analysis Tools

Links to Resources

Analysis Tools

The following tools highlight selected tools for situational analysis and gender. Note: For each list of tools, this page only displays the seven top-rated tools.

Broader Context

Situational analyses often begin with a desk review and interviews on the broader country context. This broader review can focus community-level research. Such analysis would explore a broader set of questions around:

  1. The structures, norms and broader development context that surround a community - this could be in terms of beliefs and values, policies and practices, expectations, and the social as well as natural environment
  2. The relationships and stakeholders within a community - this examines who are the key stakeholders that hold power and influence, as well as their relationships with one another, as well as in relation to poor and marginalized groups.
  3. Multi-purpose tools - a number of tools may also be adapted for multiple uses.
Structures, Norms, and Development Context

Name

Description

Community, Social and Resource Mapping

Maps the spatial spread, natural resources, access to infrastructure and the dynamics of inclusion/exclusion from development and decision-making (structures).

Gender Ideals

Uses brainstorming, illustration (or in some cases sculpture modeling) to discuss what defines an ideal man, woman, boy or girl (structures, relations, agency).

Power Mapping

Looks at where power sits within a given area, based on structural factors, including natural resources, political resources (prominent leaders) as well as development resources.

Village Histories and Trends

Outline key events and condition’s (structures) facing communities across history that shaped its development and identity, probing what strategies people took during these times (agency).

Well-Being Analysis

Illustrates who are poor, middle and rich within a community, and patterns by which groups are generally excluded in regard to well-being status (structures). and what activities they can engage (agency).
Stakeholders and Relationships

Name

Description

Dependency Mapping

Charts how different groups within a society depend on and influence one another (relations) based on diverse activities/skills (agency).

Do No Harm

Flexible framework to be used across the project cycle for understanding a) potential conflicts, b) sources of division, cohesion and peace within a community, and c) implications for programming.

Exploitation Analysis

Looks into the relational and structural dynamics between groups of economic / gendered / class power with those who face exploitation along these same terms.

Gender Equality Attitudes-Values Clarification

Gauges men’s (or women’s) attitudes about gender equality (agency). It can also then be used to understand the broader values and norms that drive attitudes (structures), as well as give a sense of the dynamics surrounding gender relations.

Local Governance - Constructing a Power Net

Looks at the legacy of how governance has been managed and trends in power-sharing within a community (structures), to explore what relationships uphold key groups in decision-making positions within a community.

Stakeholder and Institution Mapping

Maps what are key institutions and who are key stakeholders in a given environment (structures), and what are their relationships with the groups at the heart of a study.
Multi-Purpose Tools

Name

Description

Cobweb Matrix

Works with group to identify, understand and rank contributing factors driving an issue or problem (agency, structures, relations).

Community, Social and Resource Mapping

Maps the spatial  spread, natural resources, access to infrastructure and the dynamics of inclusion/exclusion from development and decision-making (structures).

Dependency Mapping

Charts how different groups within a society depend on and influence one another (relations) based on diverse activities/skills (agency).

Do No Harm

Flexible framework to be used across the project cycle for understanding a) potential conflicts, b) sources of division, cohesion and peace within a community, and c) implications for programming.

Exploitation Analysis

Looks into the relational and structural dynamics between groups of economic / gendered / class power with those who face exploitation along these same terms.

Focus Groups Discussions

Group discussions can touch on a spectrum of issues related to agency, relations and structures. Note: depending on the topic of discussion, teams must consider risks and the importance of privacy and confidentiality.

Force-Field Analysis

Explores the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors that constrain or reinforce a particular issue or condition. These factors can span across agency, structures and relations.

Gender Equality Attitudes-Values Clarification

Gauges men’s (or women’s) attitudes about gender equality (agency). It can also then be used to understand the broader values and norms that drive attitudes (structures), as well as give a sense of the dynamics surrounding gender relations.

Gender Ideals

Uses brainstorming, illustration (or in some cases sculpture modeling) to discuss what defines an ideal man, woman, boy or girl (structures, relations, agency).

Guidance

Local Government - Constructing a Power-Net

Looks at the legacy of how governance has been managed and trends in power-sharing within a community (structures), to explore what relationships uphold key groups in decision-making positions within a community.

Peer Ethnographic Research-Evaluation

Works with peer evaluator researchers to engage in active dialogue with community members for in-depth understanding of needs, social behaviors and changes in relation to agency, structure and relations.

Power Mapping

Looks at where power sits within a given area, based on structural factors, including natural resources, political resources (prominent leaders) as well as development resources.

Prioritizing Hypotheses

Aid in the process of selecting and prioritizing strategic hypotheses – those for which causal evidence does not exist and are essential to the success of your program.

Quick, Easy, Deep and Dignified

Method using appreciative inquiry for program design.

Ranking and Setting Priorities

Gauges priorities to rank issues within a community. These problems may be explored in terms of how they affect what people can do (agency), their affect on relationships within the community), and structural issues that may drive these issues.

Reflective Practice

Engages a group to reflect critically on how a project is progressing, or another priority issue - across agency, structures and relations - to brainstorm steps to take that may be necessary to improve impact or catalyze positive change.

Root Causes Analysis Tools

Explores issues across agency, relations and structures that may promote change or perpetuate the particular issue. Included within this category of tools are: problem tree, dream tree, spider diagram and causal flow analyses.

Stakeholder and Institution Mapping

Maps what are key institutions and who are key stakeholders in a given environment (structures), and what are their relationships with the groups at the heart of a study.

Surveys and Interviews

To discover quantitative information about people's opinions, beliefs and practices, and about service need or coverage of project access, so that the information may be analyzed statistically.

Systems Logic Mapping

Maps out different stakeholders’ perspectives on the relationships and structures, which may be perpetuated by people’s perceptions, actions or attitudes (agency) to reinforce a particular condition within society.

Village Histories and Trends

Outline key events and condition’s (structures) facing communities across history that shaped its development and identity, probing what strategies people took during these times (agency).

Stakeholder and Institution Mapping

Illustrates who are poor, middle and rich within a community, and patterns by which groups are generally excluded in regard to well-being status (structures). and what activities they can engage (agency).

 

Gender Analysis Areas of Inquiry

A number of tools in this Toolkit aim to explore each of the core areas of inquiry within the Good Practices Framework for Gender Analysis. A listing of tools, organized by areas of inquiry as discussed in the Good Practices Framework for Gender Analysis:

  1. Sexual / Gendered Division of Labor
  2. Household Decision-Making
  3. Control over Productive Assets
  4. Access to Public Spaces and Services
  5. Claiming Rights and Meaningful Participation in Public Decision-making
  6. Control over One's Body
  7. Violence and Restorative Justice
  8. Aspirations for Oneself

 

Resources

Key External Resources

 

Resources Cited in this Section

  • B Bode (2010). Regional Capacity-Building Initiative in Situational Analysis – Process Report of the Capacity Building Workshops. CARE International – East / Central Africa Regional Management Unit.
  • M Picard (DRAFT, as of 2010). A Guide for Implementing the Program Approach for CARE international in Indonesia. CARE Indonesia.
  • B Bode (2009). The Causes and Conditions of Poverty in Acholiland, Northern Uganda. CARE Uganda.
  • A Dazé, K Ambrose and C Ehrhart (2009). Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook.
  • B Kuehhas (2009). Gender Analysis Guiding Notes. CARE Osterreich.
  • V Robinson (2009). Context and Power in Sex Work in Bangladesh: An inquiry into empowerment and HIV risk reduction among sex workers in Dhaka and Tangail. CARE Bangladesh.
  • S Sharma (2009). Participatory Methods, Processes and Analyses: A handbook for identification of underlying causes of poverty and formulation of strategies. CARE Nepal.
  • J Buter (2008). Reflexion sur le genre et la diversité sur le lieu de travail à CARE Burundi. MDF Training and Consultancy.
  • CARE Bangladesh (2008). Strategic Impact Inquiry: Empowerment Approaches and HIV Risk Reduction Overview of Research Design.
  • CARE USA (2008). Gender, Sex and the Power to Survive: the impact and implications of empowering women at risk of HIV/AIDS: A Global Research Design Framework Appendices.
  • M Logarta, S Heng, R Long (2008). Gender, Sex and the Power to Survive: the impact and implications of empowering women at risk of HIV/AIDS: Project on Sex Workers’ HIV/AIDS Reduction, Advocacy, Facilitation and Empowerment (SAFE). CARE Cambodia.
  • B Bode (2007). Power Analysis in the Context of Rights-Based Programming. CARE Bangaldesh. Available at Module 3 of the Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • CARE and ICRW (2007). PLA Field Guide: Western Balkans Gender-Based Violence Initiative. Exploring Dimensions of Masculinity and Violence with Young Men: Skills Building Workshop at Investing in Young People’s Health and Development: Research that Improves Policies and Programs.
  • CARE International – Ecuador (2007). Experiential Methodologies: a proposal for developing qualitative research. Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry, CARE.
  • CARE International – USA (2007). Ideas and Action: Addressing the Social Factors that Influence Sexual and Reproductive Health.
  • CARE International – USA (2007). Promising Practices Inquiry on Women’s Empowerment: Resources. CARE. Available at Module 2 of CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • K de Boodt (2007). Empowerment Approaches for Understanding Empowerment: Learning from Practice – Appreciative Inquiry (Dialogue Valorisant) for Positive Change. CARE Burundi. Available at Module 4 of CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • A Eckman, A Jain, SD Kambou, D Bartel and J Crownover (2007). Exploring Dimensions of Masculinity and Violence. Washington, DC: CARE and the International Center for Research on Women. 
  • B Bode (2006). Disaggregating Community through Social Analysis. CARE Bangladesh. Available at Module 3 of CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • CARE (2006). Global Research Framework for CARE’s Strategic Impact Inquiry on Women’s Empowerment. Available at the Overview page of CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Library.
  • CARE (2006). Ecuador Case Study. Available at CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • CARE and ICRW (2006). Walking the Talk. Inner Spaces, Outer Faces Initiative: A Gender and Sexuality Initiative.
  • CARE Burundi (2006). La Piste du Voyage: L’Approche valorisante synthese de methodologie. Available at Module 6 of CARE’s Women’s Empowerment Strategic Impact Inquiry Methodological Compendium.
  • CARE Ethiopia (2006). Strategic Impact Inquiry on Women’s Empowerment in Relation to FGC Elimination Project in Awash.
  • CARE Tanzania (2006). Strategic Impact Inquiry into Women’s Empowerment: The Open Inquiry.
  • F Maiga, AK Coulibaly, RF Ngampana, M Fofana, O Keita, B Diallo and A Koné (2006) Facilitation Guide for In-depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions with Women. CARE Mali.
  • CARE India (unpublished). Strategic Impact Inquiry 2005 Annex of Tools.
  • Patsy Collins Trust Fund Initiative (2006). Selected Participatory Tools for Situational Analysis. LEADER Workshop, CARE International - Tanzania.
  • A Rivuzimana (2006). Les Indicateurs d’Empowerment des Femmes au Nord du Burundi. CARE Burundi.
  • K McCaston (2005). Tips for Collecting, Reviewing and Analyzing Secondary Data. CARE. Available at Module 3 of the Women’s Empowerment SII Methodological Compendium.
  • T Frankenberger, K Luther, J Becht and K McCaston (2002). Household Livelihoods Security Assessments: A Toolkit for Practitioners. CARE.
  • V Wilde (2001). Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) Program Field Handbook. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
  • P O’Brien (2001). Benefits-Harms Handbook, CARE.